Case studies of sudden events in nature, from the flash floods in Inverness to the volcanic eruption on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Study the Cause, Impact, Prediction and Action of each. Focussing on the environmental pressures and the strategies to improve the areas in question. Don't get bogged down with the weather, tectonics or ecosystems - try 'bite-sized' revision that's easier to digest.
Country fact files and migration case studies help make sense of population distribution, census collection, Population Pyramids and the Demographic Transition Model. Includes extensive exam style questions. Learn about the hydrological cycle, river drainage basins and hydrographs in this resource for Intermediate Geography students.
Explore the social and physical geography of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and learn about the impact and formation of upland limestone. Practise your mapwork or brush up your field drawing skills. Home Explore the BBC. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. Landscapes Unlocked Take a bird's eye view of Northern Ireland with breathtaking aerial photography and a narrative that will encourage a deeper geographical understanding of the landscape.
Sustainable Development Map out your studies of Northern Ireland with our interactive guide to sustainable development. Class Clips - Geography Stream clips from great educational Geography programmes straight into your classroom, and help your students learn about everything from Weather to Tourism.
The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean.
The descriptions of five of them have survived. The ideas of Anaximander c. Anaximander is credited with the invention of the gnomon , the simple, yet efficient Greek instrument that allowed the early measurement of latitude. Thales is also credited with the prediction of eclipses.
The foundations of geography can be traced to the ancient cultures, such as the ancient, medieval, and early modern Chinese. The Greeks , who were the first to explore geography as both art and science , achieved this through Cartography , Philosophy , and Literature , or through Mathematics. There is some debate about who was the first person to assert that the Earth is spherical in shape, with the credit going either to Parmenides or Pythagoras.
Anaxagoras was able to demonstrate that the profile of the Earth was circular by explaining eclipses. However, he still believed that the Earth was a flat disk, as did many of his contemporaries. One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by Eratosthenes. The first rigorous system of latitude and longitude lines is credited to Hipparchus.
He employed a sexagesimal system that was derived from Babylonian mathematics. To measure the longitude at different locations on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time.
He extended the work of Hipparchus , using a grid system on his maps and adopting a length of From the 3rd century onwards, Chinese methods of geographical study and writing of geographical literature became much more comprehensive than what was found in Europe at the time until the 13th century.
During the Middle Ages , the fall of the Roman empire led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the Islamic world. Turkish geographer, Mahmud al-Kashgari drew a world map on a linguistic basis, and later so did Piri Reis Piri Reis map. Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the Romans and the Greeks and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad for this purpose.
Abu Rayhan Biruni — first described a polar equi- azimuthal equidistant projection of the celestial sphere. He often combined astronomical readings and mathematical equations, in order to develop methods of pin-pointing locations by recording degrees of latitude and longitude. He also developed similar techniques when it came to measuring the heights of mountains , depths of the valleys , and expanse of the horizon.
He also discussed human geography and the planetary habitability of the Earth. He also calculated the latitude of Kath, Khwarezm , using the maximum altitude of the Sun, and solved a complex geodesic equation in order to accurately compute the Earth 's circumference , which was close to modern values of the Earth's circumference.
In contrast to his predecessors, who measured the Earth's circumference by sighting the Sun simultaneously from two different locations, al-Biruni developed a new method of using trigonometric calculations, based on the angle between a plain and mountain top, which yielded more accurate measurements of the Earth's circumference, and made it possible for it to be measured by a single person from a single location. The European Age of Discovery during the 16th and the 17th centuries, where many new lands were discovered and accounts by European explorers such as Christopher Columbus , Marco Polo , and James Cook revived a desire for both accurate geographic detail, and more solid theoretical foundations in Europe.
The problem facing both explorers and geographers was finding the latitude and longitude of a geographic location. The problem of latitude was solved long ago but that of longitude remained; agreeing on what zero meridian should be was only part of the problem. It was left to John Harrison to solve it by inventing the chronometer H-4 in , and later in for the International Meridian Conference to adopt by convention the Greenwich meridian as zero meridian.
The 18th and the 19th centuries were the times when geography became recognized as a discrete academic discipline , and became part of a typical university curriculum in Europe especially Paris and Berlin.
Over the past two centuries, the advancements in technology with computers have led to the development of geomatics and new practices such as participant observation and geostatistics being incorporated into geography's portfolio of tools. In the West during the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases: The strong interdisciplinary links between geography and the sciences of geology and botany , as well as economics , sociology and demographics have also grown greatly, especially as a result of earth system science that seeks to understand the world in a holistic view.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Geography disambiguation. The science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places or regions that form it.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of geographers and List of Graeco-Roman geographers. Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 9 October Translated by Roller, Duane W.
Princeton University Press published 24 January Introduction to Physical Geography". University of British Columbia Okanagan. The Dictionary of Human Geography. National Council for Geographic Education published An introduction to Settlement Geography. Cambridge University Press published 29 June The Study of Geography. Quoted in Baker, J. The History of Geography. New Relevance for Science and Society. The National Academies Press.
Jobs in Geography and related Geographical Sciences. American Association of Geographers. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 9, Perceptions of the World in Pre-Modern Societies. Henry Davis Consulting Inc. A join to the map of the world: Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum. Archived from the original on 20 July Science and Civilization in China.
International Journal of the Classical Tradition. Qibla, gnomics and timekeeping" PDF. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. It was Biruni, not Avicenna, who found a way for a single man, at a single moment, to measure the earth's circumference, by trigonometric calculations based on angles measured from a mountaintop and the plain beneath it — thus improving on Eratosthenes' method of sighting the sun simultaneously from two different sites, applied in the ninth century by astronomers of the Khalif al-Ma'mun.
Voyages that changed the world.
Today, geography is a multi-disciplinary field that utilizes everything from orbiting satellites to ethnographic interviews. More than just the study of maps, borders, mountains and rivers, geography attempts to explain the human relationship to our environment, both natural and man-made.
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Step-by-step solutions to all your Geography homework questions - Slader. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (– BC).
Human Geography Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional, and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. Need even more information? Don't forget to search the reference sources of Fact Monster for answers to your homework questions.