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❶Discussion of Theory cont. Another color may have been present, but not detected because of the filter paper length.


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Hazardous in case of eye contact corrosive , of inhalation lung corrosive. Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure.

A respiratory protection program that meets regulations. Stability- Stable under normal pressure and temperature. Toxicology- Hazardous in case of skin contact irritant, permeator of ingestion, of inhalation, slightly hazardous in case of skin contact sensitizer Silver Nitrate Synonyms- none Chemical Formula- AgNO3 Product is stable under normal conditions.

This substance is toxic to lungs mucous membranes. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact, ingestion, inhalation. Wear full face shield, full suit, gloves and boots. Avoid reducing agents, moisture, excessive heat and combustible materials. Hazardous in case of skin contact, ingestion, inhalation.

Wear goggles, respirator and gloves. Hazardous in case of skin contact, ingestion and inhalation. Wear goggles, lab coat, respirator and gloves. Ferric Nitrate Nonahydrate Synonyms- none Chemical Formula- Fe NO3 3 Avoid strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, light, combustible materials and high temperatures. Extremely hazardous in case of skin contact, hazardous in case of ingesting, very hazardous in case of inhalation wear goggles, lab coat, respirator and gloves.

Mercuric Nitrate Monohydrate Synonyms: Hg NO3 2 Avoid high temperatures, light, reducing agents, cyanides and nitrogen oxides. Extremely hazardous in case of ingestion, skin contact and inhalation. K2 CrO4 Avoid heat, light and acids. KI Avoid light, moisture and long exposure to air.

Reactive with oxidizing agents, organic materials, metals and acids. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact ingestion and inhalation. Wear goggles, lab coat and gloves. To use this method, one must know the possible cations of the mixture. The calculations of this lab give us the calculated Rf value for each cation used in the mixture. This calculation shows the distance the cation moved in relation to the distance the solvent moved.

By using determined precise Rf values, a specific cation can be identified. Rf values are greater when the cation moves a greater distance, and visa versa. The purpose of this lab was fulfilled because each mixture was separated and Rf values were determined. Due to different substances having different solubilities, as the solvent moves across the paper by capillary action, the components begin to separate into diffuse zones.

After the solvent rises up the paper, and the paper is dried and then sprayed with a staining reagent. The staining reagent reacts with the ions, and reveals a different color for each ion. Discussion of Theory cont. Paper chromatography is used in all fields such as detecting alcohol in blood samples to detecting traces of lead in drinking water.

Samples can often be separated into their components by chromatography because as a solvent passes through a solid, it pushes the components of of a mixture with it solubility affects rate. Since the paper is longer than 4. The longer the solvent runs up the paper, the more the compounds will separate.

Therefore, by only allowing the solvent to move 4. They arise from uncertainties in measurement and other factors and are random. Push the straight end of the paper clip into the bottom of the rubber stopper. Next, you hang a thin strip of filter paper on the hooked end of the paper clip. Insert the paper strip into the test tube. The paper should not touch the sides of the test tube and should almost touch the bottom of the test tube. Now you will remove the paper strip from the test tube.

Draw a solid 5-mm-wide band about 25 mm from the bottom of the paper, using the black felt-tip pen. Use a pencil to draw a line across the paper strip 10 cm above the black band. Pour about 2 mL of water into the test tube. The water will act as a solvent.

Put the filter paper back into the test tube with the bottom of the paper in the water and the black band above the water. Observe what happens as the liquid travels up the paper. Record the changes you see. When the solvent has reached the pencil line, remove the paper from the test tube. Measure how far the solvent traveled before the strip dries. Finally, let the strip dry on the desk. With the metric ruler, measure the distance from the starting point to the top edge of each color.

Record this data in a data table. Calculate a ratio for each color by dividing the distance the color traveled by the distance the solvent traveled. How many colors separated from the black ink?

Five colors separated from the black ink: What served as the solvent for the ink? Water served as the solvent for the ink. As the solvent traveled up the paper, which color of ink appeared first?

The color orange first appeared as the solvent traveled up the paper. List the colors in order, from top to bottom, which separated from the black ink. The colors separated in this order, from top to bottom: From your results, what can you conclude is true about black ink?

Black ink is a mixture of several different colors. Why did the inks separate? The inks separated because the black ink was a mixture of different pigments with different molecular characteristics. These differences allow for different rates of absorption by the filter paper.

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Paper Chromatography Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to observe how chromatography can be used to separate mixtures of chemical substances. Chromatography serves mainly as a tool for the examination and separation of mixtures of chemical substances.

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Conclusion of Chromatography! Let's assume that you have a compound Z with you which is impure. You want to know the purity of Z (objective). Now, based on the nature you can either go with GC or HPLC. You develope a chromatographic method to analyse it purity.

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The major types are the paper chromatography, thin layer, gas chromatography, column chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography. There are several applications of paper chromatography and other main types of chromatography techniques. Due to procedural error, we submerged the chromatography paper too far in the solution; instead of letting it sit close to the top of the solvent and letting the solvent move up the paper. The theoretical R f values were found to be Chlorophyll a , Chlorophyll b , Carotene , Xanthophyll %(14).

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The stationary phase in paper chromatography is the piece of paper that is being used. In thin-layer chromatography the stationary phase is the thin-layer cell. In both of these types of chromatography the solvent moves through the stationary phase.3/5(2). Paper chromatography is one of the easiest methods of chromatography. It is a method of planar chromatography (stationary phase is in form of a plane). Paper chromatography follows the basic principle of chromatography, which states that substances or components are distributed in between the stationary phase and the mobile phase. It is .