This paper looks at the ways different animals disguise themselves to either hide from predators or to capture prey. Types of coloration, physiological mechanisms, and the importance of remaining motionless are discussed. Specific references are made to such animals as chameleons, octopus, and flounder, among others. Computers and the Science of Weather Forecasting.
This paper describes how forecasts are made and how the use of computer models has developed over the years. Although computer-based forecasting has become increasingly sophisticated and accurate, there are still some areas in need of improvement, and such improvements can be expected with future developments in computer power and observation methods. This paper agrees with some of his points, but disagrees with the view that there is an inherent connection between religious beliefs and the tendency to exploit nature.
Rather, the problem is mainly due to the element of greed in human nature. Letter to the Seventh Generation. This paper is constructed as a letter to the people of the year , apologizing for the environmental mess left behind by the present generation.
The causes of the environmental problems are described, as well as the obstacles faced in solving them, including the failure of political and corporate leadership and inertia among people in general. Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This paper explores U. It is noted that industrial and corporate interests may have influenced the Bush Administration to reject the international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol.
Yet, this action may have a positive impact in the long run by bringing the issue of global warming to the forefront of policy debate. This paper also discusses the growing local-level effort to reduce emissions, in spite of the failings of the federal government. Theodore Roosevelt and the American Conservation Movement. This paper concerns the conservation efforts made by Theodore Roosevelt throughout his life and during his time as president.
Although some of his efforts failed as a result of controversies, he made a great contribution overall to the American conservation movement. The report is concerned with the hidden, indirect costs involved in using fuel for running motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. Written ; 6 pages; 0 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source. This paper addresses the misconception that Judaism is somehow responsible for the environmental problems that exist today.
Demonstrates that despite the fact that rabbis once tried to distance the faith from the nature-based values of paganism, there is a tradition of reverence for nature and its cyclical processes to be found in Judaism. The paper further argues that there is a need today for the faith to 'reclaim the feminine' and restore emphasis on the sacredness of nature.
Written in the first person, this paper considers various ideas for helping with the trash disposal problem, emphasizing the importance of the "3 Rs" recycling, reusing and reducing.
Includes suggestions for creating a web site on the issue, changing one's personal behaviors and habits, and encouraging others to participate in the effort. This paper provides a brief profile of the current status of the world's cheetah population. The first part of the paper conducts an overview of the potential sources of a biological attack, looking at both state actors and non-state actors, and examining the barriers that these potential attackers would have to overcome in order to carry off a large-scale attack using biological agents.
The second part provides an overview of what experts have identified as the five "critical biological agents" that might be used as biological weapons: This paper provides a sociological perspective on Israel's current water crisis, examining the scope of the problem and focusing on the effect of Israel's water problem on it relations with Arab neighbors most specifically the Arab neighbors within the Jordan River System basin - Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinians.
The first section examines the overall importance of water to Israeli state building and survival; the next section provides an overview of the scope of Israel's water problem, examining major sources of water, current and projected demand levels, and the scope of the water quality problems and their causes. The final section focuses on water as a source of conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians.
The Problem of Hunger in Zimbabwe. This paper reports on the progress or lack thereof made by Zimbabwe since the World Food Summit in the eradication of hunger; identifies the major obstacles an difficulties Zimbabwe faces in overcoming hunger; and summarizes proposed plans for improving the progress towards achieving the goal of reducing hunger. Zimbabwe's food security position is found to have deteriorated markedly since Although inclement weather plays a partial role in the current crisis, the major causes of Zimbabwe's food security problems are political and can be traced to Mugabe's land-reform programs, the recent "land invasions," and the mismanagement of the Zimbabwean economy.
The AIDS epidemic is cited as a key factor in which must be addressed as part of longer-term efforts to solve the hunger crisis. Marketing Environmental Clean-Up to China. The analysis begins with an overview of current political and economic conditions in China. The next section profiles the current market for environmental and pollution control services and products in China. Following this, the analysis considers some of the basic aspects - and risks - of doing business in China, including accounting practices, legal structure, available modes of entry, intellectual property rights, costs of doing business, cultural considerations, human resource management issues, and the general logistics of operating in China.
A concluding section makes recommendation on entry. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current state and future potential of wind power as a source of energy throughout the world, with particular focus on the use of wind power in the United States. The investigation includes a review of the current state of the art in wind power technology, an overview of the size and scope of the current and potential wind power market, both globally and specifically in the U.
This paper discusses the controversy over whether limited water resources in southwest Oregon should be used for irrigation of farmland or to protect endangered fish species. The diversion of water from farms resulted in great financial losses and protests in the year , and it was later found that the diversion was based on erroneous scientific evidence.
The paper concludes by arguing that there is a need for a solution based on compromise between the two sides. Statistical Data and the "Environmental Justice" Controversy. Discusses the hypothesis that low-income people and minorities are more likely to reside in areas that pose environmental risks. It is argued that the studies opposing this hypothesis are flawed and are based on generalizations and assumptions by contrast, the studies that support the hypothesis are based on stronger statistical evidence.
Global Warming in the 21st Century: Outlook and Policy Response. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the global warming problem as it is understood at the beginning of the 21st century.
The paper begins with a definition and history of global warming. The next section surveys the literature on global warming trends over the past century, reviews the latest predictions on global warming over the next century, and summarizes the predicted consequences of such warming.
The final section of the essay examines the domestic and international policy responses to the global warming problem. The Nicaraguan Dry Canal Proposal. Within the framework of a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Panama Canal, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the proposed Nicaraguan "dry canal" project, considering the environmental, commercial, economic, and human development aspects of each.
The analysis begins with an overview of the current and likely future role of the Panama Canal as a trans-Oceanic passage. Following this, the analysis describes the history and current scope of the Nicaraguan dry canal proposal, comparing its advantages and disadvantages commercial, economic, environmental, human development with that of the Panama Canal. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the long-term impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the ecology of Prince William Sound and the surrounding EVOS area.
This essay focuses on those resources and concentrating on the waterfowl, fish and other marine life most affected by the spill and and their recovery or lack of recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Included is a consideration of the controversies surrounding measurement of the degree of recovery and the specific impact of the spill on various species.
Environmental Justice and the Hazardous Waste Trade. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of trade in hazardous waste between industrialized nations and less developed countries. The analysis examines the Basel Convention through the lens of environmental justice by looking at issues of equity, justice and legal conflicts of trade and the environment.
The analysis traces the history of toxic waste trading and the Basel Convention providing specific case examples; examines the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the Basel Convention; looks at the more recent debate on the amendment which would ban all hazardous waste trade between OECD and non-OECD nations; and considers the current scope of the problem in hazardous waste trade as illustrated by recent dumping cases.
The California Energy Crisis. Provides an overview and analysis of the California energy crisis. Considers the principal causes of the crisis, including botched deregulation, supply scarcity, market power of energy suppliers, rising demand and rapid population growth, and the failure to conserve.
Examines the economic, political, and environmental impact of the crisis, looking at the effects both in California and in other regions. The concluding section makes recommendations for solving the current crisis and preventing a recurrence of the problem in the future. Bay Area Traffic Congestion: The Problem and Possible Solutions. This investigation looks at the problem of traffic congestion in the San Francisco Bay Area and then considers possible solutions to address the gridlock problem.
The first section provides an overview of the scope, magnitude, and causes of the Bay Area gridlock problem. The second section focuses on "solutions" to the problem, first reviewing the more "traditional" solutions encompassed within the current Bay Area transportation plan, and then looking closely at two non-traditional solutions and congestion pricing and telecommuting. It is recommended that congestion pricing be implemented on the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and that telecommuting programs focus on high-tech industries in Silicon Valley and Southern Alameda counties.
The parameters of the recommended programs along with their potential risks and barriers to implementation are discussed. Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Includes discussions of the geologic conditions that cause a risk in the area, the need for preparedness on both the household and community levels, and the problems in implementing retrofitting programs.
Argues that, although much has been done to prepare the community for a future quake, still more needs to be done. Leopold made an important contribution to the philosophy of the environmental movement with his views on the interconnectedness of nature. According to this view, humans are a part of the "community" of nature, and therefore they need to have a "land ethic" for conserving nature.
Some tribal leaders have invited the placement of dumpsites on their reservations in order to boost the local economy; however, there are others who argue against this practice on the basis of possible health risks, threats to the environment and charges of "environmental racism.
The "Environmental Justice Paradigm. It is argued that the main problem with the paradigm is its implication that acts of environmental injustice are caused by racism rather than factors of class or low income. On the other hand, it is argued that the paradigm is promising because of its grassroots nature and its ability to unify and empower diverse groups of people. The Controversy Over Whale Slaughter. Discusses the arguments against the killing of whales including claims that it is cruel and unnecessary, and that whales are an endangered species and the arguments in favor of allowing it which are mainly based on the rights of indigenous peoples and the cultural traditions of nations such as Norway and Japan.
Concludes by referring to some of the proposed compromise solutions to the problem. Provides an analysis of the causes of famine, looking at the two main types of hunger found in the modern era: Sen's theory of entitlements is used to explain both types of hunger and to make the argument that economic and political circumstances curtail individual's ability to acquire enough food.
Draws on specific examples, including the Bengal famine of and the cases of Brazil and Sri Lanka to illustrate chronic hunger. Argues that famine and chronic hunger can be prevented by addressing entitlement failures as their source, reducing economic inequities, and fostering a climate of participatory democracy. Successful hunger prevention programs in specific African and Asian countries are noted.
Explores the ethical and social problems involved in the exploitation of flora and fauna for medicine, foodstuffs and other products.
Argues that biotechnology is motivated to protect rain forests and wildlife, and may help preserve indigenous peoples in passing. This paper explores the ethical problems of biotechnology and use of natural resources, mainly in less developed nations, by scientists and business of the developed world.
Among the issues reviewed are ethical conflicts posed by research, development and marketing of new drugs from exotic sources, creation and marketing of new flora and fauna, and the exploitation of tribal areas for profit. Population and the Future of the Planet. The paper focuses on the issues of energy, population and environmental consciousness.
This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversy over the zero emissions vehicles plan. The history of the ZEV mandate and the rationale for its implementation are discussed. The analysis focuses on the respective positions and responses of the automakers versus environmentalists and regulators. This paper focuses on the crucial role of Southern California and the Los Angeles basin in particular in the program's initiation and continuing controversy.
Global Warming and Industrialization. Discusses the scientific evidence that there is a link between industrial pollution and the "greenhouse effect," as well as the controversy over the extent of the seriousness of the problem. The Ozone Hole in the Antarctic.
A discussion of how the annual depletion of the ozone layer is caused by pollutants and greenhouse gasses. Also covers the threat to the ecosystem, international efforts to deal with the problem, and the view that the problem will eventually be alleviated. This paper presents an analysis and a case solution to a case study on the U. Environmental Science has also helped establish a trend of public awareness towards the threats of climate change caused by environmental problems.
We are now going to write an essay on one of the topics mentioned above so that you can understand how to research and put your piece together. Just so you know, our next guide focuses on: Food security basically assures the continuation of access to food, regardless of race or class, at all times for the sake of a healthy life.
The number of people that die from starvation, dietary deficiencies or malnutrition throughout the world sits at a staggering 18 million. Population growth needs to be kept in check if food security is to be achieved. Other factors tying into food security include the availability of water, active farming, equal distribution and reasonable consumption of food.
It is very important that small scale farmers are properly incentivized so that the culture of farming continues to thrive. The international community also needs to come together to ease trade related restrictions. Long term food security can be achieved through protecting and conserving wild crop variants in wildlife sanctuaries and national parks.
Environmental scientists are currently working on a second green revolution so that food security is assured for the future. According to scientists, this new revolution should be based on proper water management, equity, biodiversity, conservation of cultivars, environmental sensitivity and complete protection of wild crops. It is very important that farming methods are revised.
Chemical agriculture is harmful to the environment and it is crucial for the sake of long term food security that a shift is made to organic farming through the practice of integrated nutrient management and pest management.
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Special Issue on Emerging chemicals of concern Paul K.
Journal of Environmental Sciences is an international peer-reviewed journal established in It is sponsored by the Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and it is jointly published by Elsevier and Science Press.
Mar 05, · The role of environmental science papers in the world development movement – a brief overview of modern ecological approaches and its application4/4(50).
This paper is concerned with a Science News article that describes a possible technological approach to solving the problem of global warming. The approach calls for the use of a trillion tiny spacecraft, equipped with shades, which would orbit the sun and reduce the amount of light that the earth receives. Environmental Science Previous Years (Past) Papers (PDF) for CBSE (UGC) NET from Paper 3 has been removed from NET from (Notification)- now paper 2 and 3 syllabus is included in paper 2.
Buy and download the official CAPE Environmental Science Past Papers ebook. Five Amazing Ideas For A Research Paper In Environmental Science. Environmental science is not an easy or dull course, but exactly the opposite.