Classroom learning environments and the mental health of first grade children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52 , 4— Based on prior research and theory, Milkie and Warner hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children. While inductive and deductive approaches to research seem quite different, they can actually be rather complementary.
In some cases, researchers will plan for their research to include multiple components, one inductive and the other deductive. In other cases, a researcher might begin a study with the plan to only conduct either inductive or deductive research, but then he or she discovers along the way that the other approach is needed to help illuminate findings.
Here is an example of each such case. In the case of my collaborative research on sexual harassment, we began the study knowing that we would like to take both a deductive and an inductive approach in our work. We therefore administered a quantitative survey, the responses to which we could analyze in order to test hypotheses, and also conducted qualitative interviews with a number of the survey participants.
The survey data were well suited to a deductive approach; we could analyze those data to test hypotheses that were generated based on theories of harassment. The interview data were well suited to an inductive approach; we looked for patterns across the interviews and then tried to make sense of those patterns by theorizing about them. Sexual harassment as a gendered expression of power. American Sociological Review, 69 , 64— We then tested our hypotheses by analyzing the survey data.
In general, we found support for the theory that posited that the current gender system, in which heteronormative men wield the most power in the workplace, explained workplace sexual harassment—not just of adult women but of younger women and men as well. Presented at the meetings of the American Sociological Association. Researchers may not always set out to employ both approaches in their work but sometimes find that their use of one approach leads them to the other.
Investigating the social world: The process and practice of research. The specific deterrent effects of arrest for domestic assault. American Sociological Review, 49 , — Specifically, Sherman and Berk hypothesized that deterrence theory would provide a better explanation of the effects of arresting accused batterers than labeling theory. Deterrence theory predicts that arresting an accused spouse batterer will reduce future incidents of violence.
Conversely, labeling theory predicts that arresting accused spouse batterers will increase future incidents. Sherman and Berk found, after conducting an experiment with the help of local police in one city, that arrest did in fact deter future incidents of violence, thus supporting their hypothesis that deterrence theory would better predict the effect of arrest.
The deterrent effect of arrest in incidents of domestic violence: A Bayesian analysis of four field experiments. American Sociological Review, 57 , —; Pate, A. Formal and informal deterrents to domestic violence: The Dade county spouse assault experiment. American Sociological Review, 57 , —; Sherman, L. Crime, punishment, and stake in conformity: Legal and informal control of domestic violence. Inductive research begins with observation which leads to a larger universal hypothesis.
The primary difference between the two types of research is that inductive research is more flexible in nature. It allows researchers to explore multiple ideas before determining which one correlates to a hypothesis.
The crux of inductive reasoning is also data and discerning patterns. The more data that scientists who use an inductive research method collect, the more likely they are to be able to draw valuable conclusions from it. What Is an Inductive Research Approach? Quick Answer An inductive research approach is one that begins with the final stages of scientific research, typically observation, and works backward to form a hypothesis.
What Is Systematic Observation in Psychology? Is that possible to have both in our research? I mean, what if we choose an inductive approach and then when we go forward make some assumptions to answer research questions?
You cannot start with inductive and then switch to deductive — it must be one or the other. Great work and explanation and also the researcher herself is very energetic and motivated to help others… world is because of people like you. You can look this up yourself, through your library and learning resources at your institution…. Dear Deborah, Thank you for the precise explanation of inductive and deductive approaches. When analysing data in a qualitative study, could you use both inductive and deductive methods as a triangulation technique?
Hi Irene, a mixed methods study might involve both a quantitative method — e. But the overall approach would still be inductive as the quantitative element normally shapes the qualitative and the overall aim would still be to gain in-depth understandings rather than generalise findings.
Mixed methods does as you say, create academic rigour through triangulation. Your email address will not be published.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Deborah Gabriel Research Guides March 17, July 5, deductive research , doctoral research , grounded theory , inductive research , qualitative research , research approcahes , research methods Comments.
Has this post helped you? If so then please leave a comment! Methods and methodology Deborah Gabriel Pingback: Thanks — Chantal Reply thank you so much for the information. Reply Deborah, thanks for this elaboration. Thanks Reply Deductive research is more aimed towards testing a hypothesis and therefore is an approach more suited to working with quantitative data. Reply Dear Deborah, it has been very long time since you posted this article. Reply Thanks so much Reply Thank u for the information, it really helps me.
Reply Exactly, your work is simple and clear, that there are two research approaches, Inductive and deductive. This is how we share knowledge,and you become more knowledgable Reply Thank you Lambawi, I am glad that these posts are proving useful. Reply This has been helpful. Reply Thank you ever so much for making it simple and easily understandable.
Best wishes Molla Reply The explanation is simple and easy to understand it has helped to a lot thank you Reply very helpful and explained simply. Reply Excellent presentation please! Thank you Reply Thanks; this has been helpful in preparation for my forthcoming exams Reply This is fantastic, I have greatly beneffitted from this straight forward illustration Reply Thanks…i will benifited to read this Reply Thanks for your help. Keep it like that so that will be our guide towards our destinations.
Reply Thank-you for your academic insights. Reply Thank you for your clarification. Reply Hi, I had a question would you call process tracing technique an inductive or deductive approach? You might find this journal article useful: Reply I am very thankful for this information, madam you are just good. Reply Hi Deborah, I have been struggling with my research methods proposal, in finding the right methodology for my study. Very useful piece of information.
Reply Very impressing work, may god bless you with more mighty knowledge. Reply In fact this has been very usefull information for me in my research,. Reply Is it possible to use deductive approach in research concerning what has happened in an industry?
Reply If you are seeking to test a hypothesis then yes. Reply Thank you very much this information has been extremely helpful. Reply Thanks for that good work Deborah. Reply Please refer to the recommended reading: Reply Good work Deborah. Reply Thank you so much!! Reply Thank you , useful explanation Reply It is a very fruitful post. Reply Dear Tamer, Your question is too hypothetical for me to offer a response.
Reply This is a question of methodology — research methods must be selected based on the discipline, research questions and approach to the study. Reply Your comments are really good and easy to understand. Reply Thank u so much. Reply Thanks for the inforation Deborah. Reply Hi Zilla, It is hard to provide a definitive answer without knowing what your research questions are although time does not permit me to provide individual responses. Reply Dear Deborah I just want to ask you to help me with generation of theory.
Steps that need to be followed Mongwai Michael Reply Thanks a lot for showing me the best way to understand the basic difference between two approaches of research. Reply Dear Aliyu, time does not permit me to provide responses on your individual projects.
Reply Beautiful stuff you are giving us Deborah. Reply I am gathering quantitative data to develop a model to represent the behavior of a material using an existing model. Could you please kindly let me know what is my reasearch method Thanks Reply Please see my response to Aliyu on 8 November.
Reply Dr, your explanation about inductive research and deductive, is meaningful to postgraduate students. Reply Very brief and well explained. Reply Thank you Dr. Gabriel, good informationl; will come back. Reply Thanks Deborah for the explanation but, i want to ask if descriptive is inductive or deductive approach?
God bless you Reply it is really good explanation thank you Reply Can I ask one question? Reply Please refer to my post on conceptual frameworks to take you through the key steps in developing a research project — you will find your answer there: Reply I've got the answers,thx. Reply It is very clear and concise. Reply Thank you so much Deborah. Good luck with your dissertation! Reply Thank you D now I am aware of these two!
Reply Deborah, your work is precise,well organized and relevant. Reply Hi Doc, thank you for making things simpler for me. Reply Thank you for the information. Reply Hi Deborah, i just went through the abductive approach which is combination of inductive and deductive Approach.
Thank u all again Reply Thx for the information. Reply Hi Deborah Thank you very much for the article. Thank you Reply Hi Thuba, In a mixed methods study, the quanitiative dimension of the study usually functions to capture preliminary data, with the qualitative dimension being the primary method that answers the research questions.
Reply Your explanation of concepts is succint and easily conceivable. Thank you Reply No problem — you can use the contact form and your message will go directly to my email address.
Reply Thanks for differentiating the two in easy and pragmetic manner. Reply Thank you Deborah, that was a simple, clear explanation helpful for sure. Regards, Reply I like the way you simplified everything,was really helpful for my assignment. Thank you Reply Reference it as an online source: Reply Great insight, simple and clear; I now get the difference thanks for sharing.
Reply Thanks for the very good explanation and comparison. Reply A very simple and straightforward guidance to students. Thanks Reply Dear Almaz, thank you for your feedback.
Thank you once again! Reply You are definitely on point. Reply Such inspiring work. Reply I am glad to hear that. What are you studying? Reply Thanks a lot for such a good explanation, Deborah! Reply Thank you very much. It was simple to understand. It is so useful. Reply This has been troubling me for a while. Reply Thank You so very much Deborah. Reply Hi Deborah Thanks for an intersting piece of work presented.
Thanks Hakimu Reply Hi Deborah thank you for a great article. Reply Dear Amna, Welcome to the world of research — we all have to start somewhere! Reply Thanks so much. This post was very helpful and easy to understand! Reply Hi Deborah, Thank you for the precise and helpful information.. Thank you very much! Reply Thank you for a crisp and nice post.
A deductive approach is concerned with “developing a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing a research strategy to test the hypothesis” It has been stated that “deductive means reasoning from the particular to the general.
The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.
Inductive, or "bottom-up," research, by comparison, collects data and observations in order to discern a pattern within them, or to formulate a new theory. The procedure followed by deductive research can be summarized as follows: Theory, starting with existing knowledge or assumptions. Deductive research approach; Inductive research approach; Abductive research approach; The relevance of hypotheses to the study is the main distinctive point between deductive and inductive approaches. Deductive approach tests the validity of assumptions (or theories/hypotheses) in hand, whereas inductive approach contributes to the emergence of new theories and generalizations.
A deductive approach to research is the one that people typically associate with scientific investigation. • The researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories. Researchers taking a deductive approach take the steps described earlier for inductive research and reverse their order. They start with a social theory that they find compelling and then test its.