No two people are alike, even when they are from the same family, let alone from the same ethnic, religious, cultural, or national backgrounds. Conflict theory is one of the most salient theories in the social sciences, because it brings together elements of sociology and psychology, and can be applied to almost every practical area of research including economics and criminology.
Conflict theory originally evolved from the sociological theories of Karl Marx, who investigated the ways conflict between different social classes in any given society can lead to problems like alienation and disenfranchisement Turner, Alienation and disenfranchisement in turn create the potential for deviant behavior and criminality, which is why it is important to understand conflict theory and how it impacts our daily lives. Conflict theory also illustrates the ways power structures and social institutions perpetuate themselves.
Analyzing Sociology Social Conflict Theory. Social Conflict Theory The model of social conflict shows that the society has many forms of inequality which bring about social change and conflict. This kind of study centers on the types of inequality found in the society, along with the subsequent conflict between the fortunate and less fortunate.
Thus, this paper will look at the theory of Social Conflict and its past and present role in the society.
The introduction entails the terminologies used along with their definitions. The terms include sociological theories, and the word theory itself. There is also an explanation of their roles in various areas, mostly centering on Sociology. Additionally, this paper contains the main theories relating to the area of Sociology. The following part looks into the theory of Social Conflict, including its contents, assumptions or perspectives as well as the developers and advocates of the theory.
The final part of this paper…… [Read More]. The Main Concepts of Conflict Theory. Introduction Conflict theory was first articulated by Karl Marx as a way to explain his perception that society was engaged in a continual struggle or conflict due to a finite supply of resources.
As a result, the order of society is determined by the powers that rise to the top to control the resources. The subtext of this theory is that order is established by rule and tyranny rather than by consensus of the whole.
This paper will examine the main concepts and principles of Conflict Theory, identify its strengths and weaknesses, discussed fallacies within the theory, and describe how it can be used to address differences in people. Main Concepts and Principles Though rooted in Marxist ideology, conflict theory emerged in the s as a reaction to structural functionalism Ritzer, Stepnisky, Structural functionalism was a theory that proposed to explain the manner in which society functions…… [Read More].
The dark side of the force: Economic foundations of conflict theory. R2P and the spectre of the swinging pendulum. International Affairs, 89 5: Social-Conflict and Good ill Hunting Social-Conflict theory espouses the belief that that conflict is a basic aspect of life and can never be fully resolved. According to this approach formal agencies of social control merely coerce the disenfranchised to comply with the rules established by those in power. Marx's conflict approach stresses a materialistic interpretation of social order.
Marx felt that the way work is socially organized and the technology utilized in production have a strong impact on every other aspect of society. He maintained that everything of value in society results from human labor and viewed working men and women as engaged in making society and creating the…… [Read More]. There are currently , Hmong in the United States, with the greatest concentration being in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area, with over 50, MHS, Most of the Hmong in the United States have their roots in Laos.
During the s, with the conflict in Southeast Asia, there was conflict in Laos as well, with a rising Communist movement. The Hmong, an ethnic minority in that country, supported the United States in that conflict. When the Communists took over Laos, the Hmong fled, fearing retribution.
Many first went to Thailand, but were granted refugee status in the United States in response to their contributions…… [Read More]. Conflict on Various Levels Is. The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps. Importantly, Austin et al. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence.
This is also an important recognition in the international sphere. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.
Finally, in international relations,…… [Read More]. Conflict Paradigm Key Figures and. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure.
Here, both thinkers advanced the concept that conflict may be understood also as the natural state of relations between individuals. This conflict may not be inherently hostile in nature but both thinkers bring research to the notion that 'cognitive conflict' finds individuals sometimes at cross-purposes even when working cooperatively.
Conflict and Security Current Situation. Political, financial and most of all ethnic interest are going to "to further muddle the results. Perhaps most dangerous is that the results did not yield a Parliament whose ethnic proportions match those of the country, and will therefore be perceived as unfair, whether the seats were won by fraud or not.
The other two perspectives to be taken into account in terms of the development of the Afghani society revolves around the social and the economic aspects of the country. As in every economy, there is a clear connection between the way in which the economy develops and the degree to which the society evolves.
In terms of economic prospects, Afghanistan is at the moment still the largest producer of cocaine. The crop reached an estimated 3, mt. Theories of Criminal Justice. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order.
Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order Schmalleger The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order Schmalleger For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…… [Read More].
Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have. Creativity in Design Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time American Evaluation Association, This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms.
The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes. How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates Integrity and…… [Read More]. Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole.
Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…… [Read More].
Conflict and Security in the. This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…… [Read More]. Conflict and Negotiation Examples of conflict abound in the movie "Glory. The movie uses the conflict of the Civil War as its' underlying canvas. What more appropriate theatre to understand human conflict, on every level, could there be?
The Civil War is a conflict of ideologies, aspirations, beliefs, and goals of a divided nation. Yet, these very same conflicts play out between the members of the 54th Massachusetts. Broderick, as Colonel Shaw, begins his leadership experience before the formation of the 54th Massachusetts. He is an abolitionist.
He grew up with "people of color" in his household. His first conflict is within himself. Can he accept the overwhelming responsibility of leading the first black troops, after his vicious experiences at Antietam? He leaves the celebration given in his honor to resolve…… [Read More]. Conflict in the Workplace One of the. Conflict in the Workplace One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups.
We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" Corey, , pp. This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another.
We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while…… [Read More]. Conflict Between Protestants and Catholics. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…… [Read More].
Ideology What is ideology? Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence.
Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation.
Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…… [Read More].
Conflict Its Nature and Sources. Conflict in psychological development theory offered by Erik Erikson is a dichotomy. It can act both as a means of moving ahead towards growth and development or on the other hand lead to a dead stop. A situation that one finds oneself in causes internal emotions that are in direct opposition to each other Cherry.
A conflict can hence result in decisions that are least anticipated, even by the individual afflicted by it. Individuals working in organizations, specially, face conflicting situations regularly even though they may not realize it.
In organizational behavior, it was evident that the younger generation was not disposed to aligning with the values professed by the senior…… [Read More].
Conflict Management I Was Pleased. I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.
Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away.
I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better…… [Read More]. The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth.
Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what. Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous.
It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should…… [Read More]. Conflicts in Marital Counseling Although. You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man.
Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…… [Read More]. Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future.
There are a number of sociological theories namely: Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…… [Read More].
Sociological Theories Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning.
Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system. On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…… [Read More].
Town in Turmoil a Town in Conflict. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing.
If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect. But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role or, at least, one of the roles that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…… [Read More].
Consensus and Conflict Models. The conflict model Consensus and Conflict Models Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model: And how do both fall short? The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world.
The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.
Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety'…… [Read More]. Macroeconomic Theories and Nickel and.
Bronfenbrenner's four systems consist of microsystems i. The specific connections between the individual and microsystems ; exosystems i. The larger elements of society such as national culture and political climate. The additional fifth system is the chronosystem i. The long-term patterns that describe the lifetime experiences of the individual in society such as in relation to the other four systems.
Ehrenreich's observations and conclusions seem to most exemplify the influence and effects of Bronfenbrenner's exosystems and chronosystems.
Specifically, the exosystems concept explains how damaging to the child it can be for a parent to work in demeaning and backbreaking work day after day, especially without realistic hope of improving the life circumstances of the family.
The privations of poverty are compounded by the various detrimental consequences of primary caretakers…… [Read More]. Sociological Theories the Adfc Program. The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed.
The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status.
Morton believes the program could transform the face of…… [Read More]. Sociology Theories How Do Berger. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved.
But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution. At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes.
Crime Theories Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors as sociological theories of crime do or on biological factors such as genetics.
Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency.
The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]. Conference Theories to Support Conference. A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75 3: The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Educational Theories Historically There Have. Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher.
If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed.
If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.
Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events.
In other words, realism promotes…… [Read More]. Poor and the Powerless Conflict. The blue collar criminal faces much harsher consequences, even after the formal phase of their punishment is complete. Social inequality can be seen in the punishments for various crimes. When the lower class commits a crime, such as theft, that threatens to dispossess the upper class, the punishments are much more severe than for "white collar" crimes.
It is more likely that the white collar criminal is of higher socioeconomic status than the common thief. Therefore, these types of crimes are punished much less severely, once again to protect the status of the upper class. They must be able to take action, even if it is immoral to protect their social status. Any act that attempts to dispossess the wealthy of their material goods and status is viewed as much more "criminal" than when the wealthy attempt to further deprive the poor of material goods.
A prime example of social…… [Read More]. Social and Political Theory. Social and Political History How do the functionalist and conflict theories relate to the conceptualizations of government and sovereignty presented by Heywood? How much is enough government?
What level of government do we need to get our collective business done? When does government and sovereignty interfere with the full functioning of individuals in a free society?
When and how might government be used to favor particular groups within the social order at the expense of others? How might this kind of favoritism be covered up? How does politics reflect, magnify and sometimes even hid social conflict? The social or "conflict" theory is one that is based on "how society motivates people and places in their proper position in the stratification process.
The political or "functionalist" theory focuses…… [Read More]. Managing International Conflict Diversity in. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
Conclusion The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context.
Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…… [Read More]. Social Theories of Crime Social. Conclusions Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience.
Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem.
Warner tended to agree: Consensus and Conflict Views of Crime The consensus view of crime is that crime is equally abhorrent to all elements of society. Therefore, the criminal law, particularly what is criminalized and the proposed punishments for those crimes, is believed to reflect the thoughts of society as a whole. Consensus is used because it reflects the idea that there is general agreement among people about the laws.
The consensus model depends on the idea that society is an integrated whole that seeks stability. Society rests upon the consent of the members. Moreover, individual elements in society contribute to the good of society as a show.
In a consensus model, law becomes more important as society…… [Read More]. Sociological Theories Understanding Society Also. From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society.
However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Allyn and…… [Read More]. Sociological Class Theories - ush In every society, people are grouped into a variety of categories in order to determine how they earn a living, and how much they earn that actually affects or is affected by the economy.
This kind of social stratification is common in virtually all of modern societies, but social class theories can help explain or provide some insight as to why a certain economy works smoothly or inadequately. In effect, the real question becomes, is each social class being served fairly, or does one appear to have a class advantage over the others?
The three primary theories of social class are 1 conflict, 2 functionalist, and 3 interactionist. If we examine George ush's economic policies we'd notice that these were implemented for the express purpose of benefiting the upper classes even though tax cuts may at first glance, seem like an equal benefit for all. Criminology Radical and Neo-Critical Theory. He asserted the problem to be not only within actions but also within knowledge.
Renouvier called the specific problem 'vertige mental' or a condition of psychopathological in nature, or a disturbance of rational harmony of self-possession which constitutes the essence of the personal consciousness. Stated is that Renouvier held that, "If all things are necessitated, then moral judgments, the notions of right and of duty, have no foundation in the nature of things.
Renouivier argues that, "if all is necessary, if all human actions are predetermined, then popular language is guilty of a grave extravagance and appears ridiculous, insinuating, as it does, that many acts might have been…… [Read More]. Race Theory the Issues of Race and. Race Theory The issues of race and its ramifications are some of the most pressing issues facing American society today, and will continue to challenge us in the decades to come. Of course, issues of race and socio-economic stratification have always been of vast importance, but in America the problems are magnified since the country and its people pride themselves on being a true melting pot, and the reality does not always match the ideals.
One way of examining race is the functionalist theory or perspective. The functionalist theory of social inequality contends that stratification exists because it is beneficial for society. Society must focus on and with human motivation because the duties associated with the various statuses are not all equally pleasant to the human species, important to social survival, and in need of the same abilities and talents.
In other words, society depends on certain types of people…… [Read More]. After all, a person's sense of self-worth depends on feeling competent and able to influence what is happening in one's life. How much power we perceive ourselves to have directly influences our sense of self-esteem. In other words your power over another person rests on your having something to give them that they need.
For example, in the days when women had few rights and little power in their marriages, they did have sex a valuable currency , which they could give or withhold in order to exert power. But it depends on the relationship what the currency is. Sex isn't a currency in a business relationship, for instance, and perhaps it shouldn't be used as a currency in an intimate relationship.
Every person has potential…… [Read More]. Sociological Theory in the 21st. In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest.
In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones Adams et al.
Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]. Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime. Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence.
On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. For example, one of the basic problems facing a nonwhite individual in the functional model is that of high alienation and loss of identity. However, racial conflict, with its ideological apparatus and action system, functions to alleviate alienation and to facilitate an ethnic identity.
Group solidarity is enhanced, group boundaries are clarified, and the linkage between the individual and the group is strengthened through personal commitment and social action.
In time, the group identity can be extended to the larger system through communication; the individual is exposed to larger social networks and to national core values Kitano, He contends that a synthesis of the two theories is possible. Society might operate according to both perspectives. Order and stability might exist in the presence of extreme income inequality. It is possible, for example, that a given institution might serve to make society efficient while at the same time serving the interests of the dominant elite.
Societies go through cycles of stability and conflict. Under different circumstances, people behave differently. At one point in time a society may be stable and orderly, where minorities are able to get ahead through hard work. At another point, however, society might be characterized by disorder and conflict where minorities might advance only via protest and rebellion Farley, Functionalist and conflict people tend to disagree on two basic elements.
The other is the location of the problem Farley, What is considered a social problem? It is human reaction that makes something a problem.
For a functionalist, any thing is a problem if it threatens the smooth and efficient running of society. Conflict of most kinds is seen as problematic because conflict threatens consensus. Conflict can potentially have serious consequences if it causes the disruption of society. For a conflict theorist, on the other hand, social problems include things like poverty and racism and, more generally, the inequitable distribution of wealth and other scarce resources Farley, Where do the two perspectives place the source of social problems Farley, The cause of social problems for a functionalist lies predominantly in the characteristics of the disadvantaged group.
For example, functionalist might argue that a minority group lacks the necessary skills that would yield the greatest rewards in society. Or, perhaps the group in question has a culture that is incompatible with the dominant culture.
In either case, the burden of change is placed mostly on the disadvantaged group. Conflict theorists see the source of social problems as being embedded in the exploitative behavior of the dominant group.
It is assumed from the conflict perspective that if someone or some group is suffering or placed in a disadvantageous position, there must be some other group that is more powerful that benefits from the misery of the disadvantaged group Farley, Ethnic stratification refers to a system that distributes scarce resources on an unequal basis according to race and ethnicity A paradox of sorts exists for the functionalists.
Inequality, they argue, is desirable in society because it ensures that the most qualified people will get the most important jobs in a society. On the other hand, functionalists contend that ethnic inequality has the potential to cause serious disruption of society Farley, Functionalist would argue that inequality is necessary in order to create incentives.
Some jobs are more necessary than others. They also require more training. To ensure that these jobs are filled by competent individuals, they have to provide more greater rewards. A functionalist might argue that the stratification must meet some kind of societal need.
The problem is that, while a society might need to be stratified in order to ensure important jobs are filled, etc. In order to understand ethnic stratification, one has to understand ethnocentrism, according to the functionalists Farley, Functionalist would argue that ethnocentrism in moderation is functional for a society. The only way a society can cooperate is when it shares basic values. Ethnocentrism contributes to this in several ways. An unfortunate side effect is that aggression might be also directed against an ethnic minority within the society.
The methods advocated by functionalists to diminish the effects of ethnocentrism is to: Reduce the cultural differences between the majority and minority group Eliminate legal and other barriers set up by the dominant group which excludes minorities. This approach leads to assimilation, which is the process whereby minorities are fully integrated into the system and becomes culturally similar to the majority group.
The conflict theories tend to see majority minority relationships as a matter of domination and exploitation. The conflict perspective is, in essence, a critique of functionalism.
Many argue that functionalism is merely a justification for inequality Farley, Ethnic stratification exists because it serves the interests of the dominant elite. It occurs because of the exploitative nature of the majority group as a whole or because of the exploitative nature of a wealthy elite within the majority group Farley, The necessity of stratification for productive purposes is also called into question.
Stratification cannot act as an incentive because inequality is inherited, not earned. In order for inequality to work the way the functionalist claim, there would have to be free mobility between generations. The daughter of a share cropper, who is very bright, should have the same chance of becoming a medical doctor as anyone else.
It is also argued that the shortages found in highly demanding jobs often exist because professional organizations restrict entry into the profession — not because there is a shortage of qualified people Farley, There are two — those who own the means of production and the rest of society who works for wages. Marxist see racism as a mechanism that keeps the working class from recognizing their own interests.
While minorities fight with each other, wages remain low and profits remain high. Marxists believe that workers would be best serves by putting aside their racial and ethnic differences and to act on their common class interests.
Split-Labor Market Theory argues that there are three classes: There owners of the means of production, higher paid laborers and lower paid laborers. The owners are interested in getting the best workers for the lowest wage. The higher paid workers, on the other hand, are trying to protect their jobs from competition from lower paid workers. One means the higher-paid workers use to protect their interests is to discriminate against lower-paid ethnic workers Farley, Internal colonialism theory argues that societal inequality as largely racial and ethnic Farley, The dominant racial or ethnic group establishes a system of inequality for the benefit of the dominant racial or ethnic group.
The oppressed Blacks, Mexicans, Native Americans are involuntarily brought under the rule of the dominant group. Internal colonialism argues that the dominant group promotes a racist ideology, it attacks the culture of the people who are dominated. It isolates the dominated from mainstream labor markets. The dominant group rationalizes exploitation through myths of the cultural inferiority of the oppressed.
Banfield, The Unheavenly City Revisited, The essence of Culture of Poverty theory holds that poor people share deviant cultural characteristics. The poor have lifestyles that differ from the rest of society and that these characteristics perpetuate their life of poverty. Eitzen and Baca-Zinn Such defects are passed from one generation to the next.
Under these circumstances it is extremely difficult for people, once trapped by the Culture of Poverty, to escape poverty. Characteristics that typify the Culture of Poverty exist across a variety of racial and ethnic groups. While these characteristics see below are certainly present in poverty populations, Culture of Poverty Theory leaves the impression that they typify all poor people.
The following characteristics typify the culture of poverty. Some may be accurate in some settings. Some may have had explanatory powers a few decades ago, but today are no longer accurate. They all tend to present negative connotations. All are highly stereotypical. Parents are more permissive in raising their children. They are less verbal with their children. Family-heads display a strong disposition toward authoritarianism.
Children raised in poverty also have drastically different orientations in life when compared to middle-class children. There is an absence of childhood. Children experience an early initiation to sex. Families often form based upon free unions or consensual marriage.
This partially explains the trend toward female-headed homes. The poor are more fatalistic. One might expect that a poor person would believe the following idea: The poor are less apt to defer gratification. Banfield argues that the essence of the poor subculture is its present-time orientation. He asserts that the poor do not know how to defer gratification see Eitzen and Baca-Zinn, The poor are less interested in formal education.
This theory is a social psychological theory thought to explain prejudice (Conflict Theories, ). An example for this would be immigration. With all the bombings, terrorist attacks, and violence from one ethnic group or religious group.
The conflict theory is one of three major ideologies of sociology that explains social life. It conveys life as a constant struggle between groups for power and scarce resources. This rationale was established by Karl Marx who observed small powerful groups exploiting the people in social classes below them.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! - Conflict theory is a theory that claims society is in a state of everlasting conflict due to competition for limited resources. Conflict theory holds that social order is preserved by domination and authority, rather than harmony and conformity.
Karl Marx: Conflict Theory Essay Words Oct 3rd, 4 Pages Karl Marx: Conflict Theory The most influential socialist thinker from the 19th century is Karl Marx. Conflict theory is the belief that change and conflict are good for societyflict theorists such as Karl Marx, David Hume, and Adam Ferguson believe that every society requires a minimum realistic view about its conflicts in order to survive/5(19).