Number of tables in the manuscript should not exceed the number recommended by the editorial board of the journal. Data in the main text, and tables should not be repeated many times. Tables should be comprehensible, and a reader should be able to express an opinion about the results just at looking at the tables without reading the main text. Data included in tables should comply with those mentioned in the main text, and percentages in rows, and columns should be summed up accurately. Unit of each variable should be absolutely defined.
Sampling size of each group should be absolutely indicated. Tables should include precise p values, and level of significance as assessed with statistical analysis should be indicated in footnotes. As a general rule, rows should be arranged as double-spaced Besides do not use pattern coloring for cells of rows, and columns.
Values included in tables should be correctly approximated. Most of the readers priorly prefer to look at figures, and graphs rather than reading lots of pages. As is the case with tables, graphs, and figures should also disploay information not provided in the text. Bar, line, and pie graphs, scatter plots, and histograms are some examples of graphs. In graphs, independent variables should be represented on the horizontal, and dependent variables on the vertical axis.
Number of subjects in every subgroup should be indicated The labels on each axis should be easily understandable. The fundamental point in writing explanatory notes for graphs, and figures is to help the readers understand the contents of them without referring to the main text. Meanings of abbreviations, and acronyms used in the graphs, and figures should be provided in explanatory notes.
In the explanatory notes striking data should be emphasized. Statistical tests used, levels of significance, sampling size, stains used for analyses, and magnification rate should be written in order to facilitate comprehension of the study procedures. This diagram facilitates comprehension of the results obtained at certain steps of monitorization during the research process. Histopathological analyses, surgical technique or radiological images which are considered to be more useful for the comprehension of the text by the readers can be visually displayed.
Important findings should be marked on photos, and their definitions should be provided clearly in the explanatory legends. SHIM sexual health inventory for male. IPSS international prostate symptom score. PRV post voiding residual urine volume. In conclusion, in line with the motto of the famous German physicist Albert Einstein — National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Turk J Urol v. Received Feb 18; Accepted May Abstract The writing of the results section of a scientific paper is very important for the readers for clearly understanding of the study.
Figure, paper, results, table, writing. Introduction Medical articles consist of review articles, case reports, and letters to the editor which are prepared with the intention of publishing in journals related to the medical discipline of the author.
Histopathological examination results of the patients. Open in a separate window. Use of tables, and figures To prevent the audience from getting bored while reading a scientific article, some of the data should be expressed in a visual format in graphics, and figures rather than crowded numerical values in the text.
End each statistical test with a sentence or two indicating what that particular statistical result says about the hypothesis or question. Was your hypothesis supported by the statistical result? Use tables and figures sparingly.
Tables and figures should help the reader visualize the important results, but not carry the bulk of the work in the presentation of your findings. Tables and figures are helpful to summarize a large amount of data that is essential for the reader to see but for which it would be too difficult to include each number in the narrative format of the results section.
Rewrite and revise until you have every test necessary to test your hypotheses and the reader can easily determine what the results indicate in terms of your hypotheses or questions.
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Step 1 Organize the layout of the results section in the same way you structured the hypotheses or research questions in the introduction section of your research project. Tips Try starting this section by creating an outline of each hypothesis or research question followed by each statistical test you will use for it.
Where relevant, state the effect size of the particular statistical test. Only include statistical tests that are relevant to your particular hypotheses or research questions. Excessive irrelevant statistical tests detract from the big picture and make it difficult for the reader to follow.
Do not include specific calculations used to determine the statistic.
A section describing results is particularly necessary if your paper includes data generated from your own research. Annesley, Thomas M. "Show Your Cards: The Results Section and the Poker Game." Clinical Chemistry 56 (July ):
The next stage of any research paper: writing the results section, announcing your findings to the world. Be sure to include negative results - writing a results section without them not only invalidate the paper, but it is extremely bad science. The negative results, and how you handle them, often gives you the makings of a great.
The results section of a research paper describes to the reader the outcome and findings of the research project. Using some simple techniques in the preparation of this section produces a . Use these tips for your academic article's Research Results section and organize your findings in line with academic writing requirements. How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper. July 11, Expert Journals is a publishing division of Sprint Investify.
The results section of the research paper is where you report the findings of your study based upon the information gathered as a result of the methodology [or methodologies] you applied. The results section should simply state the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence. The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated.