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❶The term hate crime first appeared in the late s in response to a racial incident in the white, working-class Howard Beach section of New York City, in which an African American man was killed while attempting to evade a violent mob of teenagers shouting racial epithets. The camp counselors then encouraged the rival groups of boys to work together to overcome these emergencies.

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Types of Hate Crimes
Hate Crime Laws

In some states, a separate statute exists that prohibits hate crime behavior. Penalty enhancements may also apply to crimes committed with a gun or by individuals with long criminal histories, or crimes committed against vulnerable victims such as children.

Some degree of variation exists among the offenses known as hate crimes. Some target particular victims, others all members of a group. Some have an expressive function, in order to provide excitement in the lives of the perpetrators; others are designed rationally to satisfy a specific objective. A precipitating event inspires some; others require no external catalyst to provoke their occurrence.

In defensive hate crimes, the hatemongers seize on what they consider to be a threatening incident, which serves as a catalyst or precipitant for the expression of their anger. They rationalize that by attacking an outsider they are in fact taking a protective posture, a defensive stance against intruders. Indeed, they often cast the outsiders in the role of those actively menacing them, while they regard themselves as pillars of the community. In a number of communities, the police have recorded specific hate crimes perpetrated against victims because of a perceived previous hate crime against their group.

Another kind of retaliatory hate crime often follows an international incident such as an act of terrorism. For example, many communities witnessed an increase in anti-Arab, retaliatory hate crimes in the months following the terrorist attacks of September 11, In a thrill-seeking hate crime, no precipitating incident need occur.

On the contrary, it is the assailant or group of assailants looking to harass those who are different, who searches out locations where the members of a particular group regularly congregate. In recent years, a common location for thrill-motivated hate crimes has been gay bars, a venue to which hatemongers can travel to locate vulnerable victims.

The payoff for the youthful perpetrators is psychological as well as social: In addition to gaining a sense of importance and control, they also receive a stamp of approval from their friends.

On occasion, hate crimes go beyond what their perpetrators consider thrill-seeking, defensive, or retaliatory, at least in the narrow sense. No precipitating episode occurs; none is necessary. The perpetrator is on a moral mission: His assignment is to make the world a better place to live.

Instead, they believe that they have a higher purpose in carrying out their crimes. Mission hate crime offenders are likely to be associated with an organized group such as the National Socialist Movement, the Ku Klux Klan, or the National Alliance.

Only 5 percent of all hate crimes are perpetrated by the members of organized hate groups. Yet most of these hate groups are small; the average has fewer than 20 members. In total, there are probably no more than 20, members of hate organizations in the United States. Given a national population exceeding million people, the 20, figure represents a minuscule proportion of Americans. However, other people do not like to have their sexual orientation known which might lead to confusion of a persons' sexuality.

Hate crime against sexuality arises when a victim is mistaken as one who belongs to a given sexual orientation, which is against his or her actual sexual orientation.

In and , sexual orientation crimes rose from to offenses. This increase was due to the varying changes in definitions and incidences by people as people realized the development of the sexual and gender hate crimes. Finally, the disability hate crime is another category of hate crime. This hate crime varies as it depends entirely on definition of the disability. People with mental impairment, physical disability or visual impairment are the victims of this hate crime as they consistently face stigmatization from the society.

Hate crimes has adverse effects on its victims and sometimes can lead to death of the victims if the victims do not get help. Educating the people on hate crimes is important, as it will help reduce stigmatization and prevalence of the crime, since people will be aware of hate crime and its consequences.

Hate Crimes Before getting in to details of hate crimes, it is imperative to understand hate crimes from the definition although it has many definitions.

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A hate crime is a violent act against people, property, or organizations because of the group to which they belong or identify with. Hate crimes are committed against many different groups of people. Different types of people also commit these crimes.

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2 In crime and in law, hate crimes (also known as bias-motivated crimes) can be defined as an offense against a victim motivated by hate. This could be based on that individual’s race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation. Hate crimes can come from many different causes, but each cause for a hate crime ultimately stems from ignorance. If we can rid our country of ignorance on subjects like the existence of hate crimes and why they take place, our 3/5(3).

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The term hate crime can be misleading, because it implies incorrectly that hatred is invariably a distinguishing characteristic of this type of offense. This paper is going to discuss hate crimes and the types of hate crimes. The first type of hate crime is the racial hate crime. Racial hate crime is the most dominant in the public order offenses in terms of the numbers and statistic as many people fall victims of this hate crime.