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Genetic Engineering

Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

❶DNA Build Students reinforce their knowledge that DNA is the genetic material for all living things by modeling it using toothpicks and gumdrops that represent the four biochemicals adenine, thiamine, guanine, and cytosine that pair with each other in a specific pattern, making a double helix.

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In fact, many are beneficial to people because they are useful and necessary to a healthy human body and environment. What are some examples of these "good" bacteria? Without bacteria, we would not be able to digest food or produce some of our favorite foods such as yogurt and cheese. The bacteria we might generally call "bad" for us include those responsible for causing illnesses like food poisoning. Do you think genetic engineers could use and modify bacteria for any purpose?

Yes Bacteria are the most commonly modified organisms. Let's look at how we can modify these bacteria and why we would want to modify them. Acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a molecule that contains an organism's complete genetic information.

The molecular unit of an organism that contains information for a specific trait specific DNA sequence. An entire set of genes for an organism. The circular DNA structure used by bacteria. A cell without a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. DNA to which a section has been removed and replaced recombined with a new sequence.

An enzyme that "cuts" DNA when specific base pair sequences are present. Bacteria can be adapted to produce a number of useful materials. Because of the simple structures of bacterial cells, they are the most commonly modified organisms. Many times, and in this activity, a gene is simply added to the bacteria, causing the bacteria to be able to produce a useful protein, such as insulin.

Other changes to bacteria can reconfigure the cellular respiration product to create desirable byproducts such as diesel or plastic molecules instead of the usual byproduct, such as carbon dioxide. The common method used for genetically modifying bacteria is to use recombinant plasmids.

Plasmids are circular pieces of DNA; when placed near bacteria, the plasmid is absorbed and incorporated into the bacterial cell. Once inside the bacteria, the plasmid is treated the same as the bacteria's original DNA. This means that the bacteria will use this new DNA from the plasmid to create proteins, and the plasmid will be replicated when the cell divides. The process of creating genetically modified bacteria used in this activity is one of the simplest methods.

First, a desired gene must be selected from some any organism, that is, the gene that codes for the creation of insulin protein, and removed from the DNA of that organism. Genes are removed using restriction enzymes. These enzymes search for specific nucleotide sequences in the DNA, called recognition sites , where they "cut" the DNA by breaking certain bonds. When the bonds are broken in a staggered manner it creates "sticky ends. The isolated gene is now placed where the plasmid was cut, and they are bonded together using another enzyme called ligase.

Now a recombinant plasmid has been produced. The final step is to get the plasmid into a bacteria cell. Sometimes simply placing the bacteria in the correct environment is enough to artificially induce the bacteria to intake the recombinant DNA, otherwise some special method may be required if the plasmid is too large to cross the bacteria's cell membrane.

The process to build a recombinant plasmid to modify bacteria. National Institutes of Health http: Quickly do a review of bacteria, emphasizing bacteria structure. Discuss the pervasiveness of bacteria in everyday life and some roles they play, both beneficial digestive health and harmful illness. Alternatively, print out the Lesson Background section and have students read through it. Building a Model Recombinant Plasmid: Direct student pairs to apply their understanding of genetics to modify plasmids.

After finishing the modification, have teams complete the Modeling Bacteria Transformation Worksheet to demonstrate their understanding of the modification process.

Administer the Assessment Questions. Use the Assessment Questions Answer Key to individually gauge students' understanding of the genetic modification of bacteria and its potential benefits and dangers. Updated December 9, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 10, However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Want to be a TE reviewer?

Social media Newsletter Donate. Activity dependency indicates that this activity relies upon the contents of the TeachEngineering document s listed.

Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications. Related Curriculum Most curricular materials in TeachEngineering are hierarchically organized; i. Modification of gene in foods can increase their medicinal value. This makes home-produced edible vaccines. Another advantage is the modification of genetic traits in human beings. Human genetic engineering science modifies human beings genotypes before birth. This process can be utilized to manipulate some traits in people.

Genetic engineering can be employed to suppress negative traits while boosting positive ones. Positive genetic engineering is concerned with the enhancement of positive individual traits. This includes increasing human capacity or longevity. Conversely, negative genetic engineering is concerned with the quelling of negative human traits such as some genetic diseases.

Genetic engineering can in the modification of human DNA. If discovered, genes responsible for particular human qualities can be inserted into the genotypes of other humans by artificial means. This brings about desirable functional and structural changes in such individuals. Genetic Engineering has some cons as well. One, it may impede nutritional value. Genetic engineering in food contaminates crop genes. Crops that are genetically engineered may take the place of natural weeds and thus harm natural plants.

Unwanted genetic mutations may lead to crop allergies. Another disadvantage of genetic engineering is that it may introduce harmful pathogens. Horizontal gene transfer may bring about new pathogens. Genetic engineering may result in genetic defects. In humans, gene therapy can have various side effects. In an attempt to treat one defect, the therapy may result in another.

Isolating cells associated with a single trait is very difficult since each cell influences numerous characteristics.

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- Genetic Engineering is highly controversial since some people believe that genetic engineering is playing God. As this fact there is opposition to the progression of the field by people who do not see the value in genetic engineering, or they fear what genetic engineering may lead to for us as people.

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Already the products of genetic engineering and genetic science are common throughout the developed world: gene therapies to treat human disease, genetically modified foods for people and animals, and pharmaceuticals for humans produced through genetically engineered bacteria.

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Genetic Engineering research papers show that cloning through genetic engineering has taken place for many years. Genetic Engineering research papers can explicate the scientific, ethical or biological aspects of genetically modifying crops and food, humans and/or other animals. Genetic engineering otherwise called genetic modification and can basically be described as the ‘direct manipulation of an organism’s genome’ which is the complete set of genetic material of an animal, plant or other living thing.

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Paper Genetic Engineering. MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M. Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology is devoted to rapid publication of full-length research papers that lead to significant contribution in advancing knowledge in genetic engineering and biotechnology and provide novel perspectives in this research area. JGEB includes all major themes related to genetic engineering and recombinant DNA.