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17: Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

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❶However, if you are not satisfied with our paper, we guarantee unlimited revisions. This completely unexpected observation led to further investigations that revealed that mRNA is extensively processed, or modified, after its transcription in eukaryotes.

Structure of DNA

dna rna nucleotides homework help
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They are nucleic acid. They have nitrogenous base. They help in the formation of proteins. In RNA instead of thymine, uracil is present. DNA has de-oxyribose sugar. RNA has ribose sugar. Both consist of nitrogenous bases and are crucial to the production of proteins. However, there are a few structural details that distinguish them from each other, and if you are to compare DNA and RNA, these would be the results: It's all in the chart I'm using as a reference.

It'll be easier to look at the chart. Nucleic acids are made of three parts: In RNA all the bases are same except thymine. In place of thymine there is a base called Uracil. Deoxyribonucleic acid also called DNA, is an important molecule that carries genetic information from one generation to the other. Though Watson and Crick were the first one to give exact structure of DNA, but before them several scientists and researchers with their experiments and findings have discovered several information about this molecule of life.

Nucleic acid and gene were separately discovered but no one was able to draw a connection between the both. In , American scientist Oswald Avery from his experiment in the bacteria proved that genes where made of nucleic acid. Likewise a Russian biochemist- Phoebus Levene was the first to find out about the phosphate-sugar-base components of a single nucleotide and also the first one to discover the carbohydrate component of DNA and RNA.

Likewise, Chargaff- the Australian biochemist , elaborated the findings of Levene and proposed two main information from his findings and experiments. First- the composition of nucleotide varies in DNA among species, second- the amount of adenine is equal to thymine, whereas the amount of guanine is similar to cytosine. This concludes that total amount of purines and the total amount of pyrimidine are nearly equal. DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides a polynucleotide that encodes the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code: In eukaryotic cells, such as those of plants, animals, fungi and protists, most of the DNA is located in the cell nucleus, and each DNA molecule is usually packed into a chromosome and shaped as a double helix.

By contrast, in simpler cells called prokaryotes, including the eubacteria and archaea, DNA is found directly in the cytoplasm not separated by a nuclear envelope and is circular. The cellular organelles known as chloroplasts and mitochondria also carry DNA.

DNA is thought to have originated approximately 3. In humans, these traits range from hair color to disease susceptibility. The genetic information encoded by an organism's DNA is called its genome. During cell division, DNA is replicated, and during reproduction is transmitted to offspring.

The offspring's genome is a combination of the genomes of its parents. Lineage studies can be done because mitochondrial DNA only comes from the mother, and the Y chromosome only comes from the father. In humans, the mother's mitochondrial DNA together with 23 chromosomes from each parent combine to form the genome of a zygote, the fertilized egg.

As a result, with certain exceptions such as red blood cells, most human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, together with mitochondrial DNA inherited from the mother. RNA nucleotides contain ribose rings and uracil unlike deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , which contains deoxyribose and thymine.


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RNA is also made of smaller molecules called nucleotides that is composed of phosphate, nitrogen bases and D-ribose pentose sugar. The bases present in RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil. N-glycosidic bond connects nucleobase and D-ribose. Test and improve your knowledge of Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA: Homework Help with fun multiple choice exams you can take online with justappclose.tk